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Knowledge Base

 

UPS-Topology
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During normal operation, an offline UPS will supply raw mains to the critical load via its bypass line and static switch. In the event of a power failure, the static switch will transfer the load to the UPS inverter and batteries.
This topology operates in a similar way to an Offline UPS, but with the addition of a built in voltage stabiliser. The voltage stabiliser ensures that the output voltage from the UPS stays within a predetermined window, regardless of fluctuations in voltage from the incoming mains supply.
Online UPS consist of four key components; rectifier, batteries, inverter and a static switch. The rectifier converts incoming mains power in to stable DC voltage, which is used to charge the batteries. The stable DC voltage also supplies the inverter, where it is converted in to stable AC supply to power the critical load.
Single vs Three Phase
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A single phase UPS operates with a single input source, and a single output source to electrical equipment. With only a single sine wave voltage, single phase supplies operate with a two wire configuration; one live conductor and one neutral. Each single phase supply is typically derived from a larger three phase supply.
A three phase UPS system utilises all three phases produced by the grid, consisting of 3 separate sine waves, each out of phase by 120 degrees. This means that three phase systems use a four wire configuration, three live conductors and a neutral, which enables 3 Phase UPS systems to support either three or single phase output. Due to the increased amount of live connections required, three phase installations require more cabling work than a single phase installation.
Power Faults
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This is a complete loss of supply from the national grid.
This is a short duration event of high voltage 110%.
This is a short duration event of low voltage.
Similar to a ‘power sag’ this is a short duration of low voltage but for a greater length of time from minutes to days.
Similar to a ‘power surge’ this fault is a high voltage but for a greater length of time from minutes to days.
This is a high frequency waveform that is generally caused by electromagnetic interference or radio frequency interference.
A frequency that is outside of 50Hz (UK) or 60Hz (USA)
This is a high frequency waveform that is generally caused by electromagnetic interference or radio frequency interference.
This is a distortion of a ‘normal power’ wave. A potential cause of this could be a nonlinear load.